Lev Aharon Library
Mesechtas Pesachim 99b
Year of Recording
Mesechtas Pesachim 99b
Gemarah shiur on the topic of וְלֹא יִפְחֲתוּ לוֹ מֵאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן וַאֲפִילּוּ מִן הַתַּמְחוּי. the four cups of wine on pesach
מַתְנִי׳ עֶרֶב פְּסָחִים סָמוּךְ לַמִּנְחָה לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ. אֲפִילּוּ עָנִי שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יֹאכַל עַד שֶׁיָּסֵב, וְלֹא יִפְחֲתוּ לוֹ מֵאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן וַאֲפִילּוּ מִן הַתַּמְחוּי.
MISHNA: On the eve of Passover, adjacent to minḥa time, a person may not eat until dark, so that he will be able to eat matza that night with a hearty appetite. Even the poorest of Jews should not eat the meal on Passover night until he reclines on his left side, as free and wealthy people recline when they eat. And the distributors of charity should not give a poor person less than four cups of wine for the Festival meal of Passover night. And this halakha applies even if the poor person is one of the poorest members of society and receives his food from the charity plate.
גְּמָ׳ מַאי אִירְיָא עַרְבֵי פְסָחִים? אֲפִילּוּ עַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים נָמֵי. דְּתַנְיָא: לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם בְּעַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לַשַּׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא תַּאֲוָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ.
GEMARA: The Gemara expresses surprise at the mishna’s statement that one may not eat on Passover eve from the time that is adjacent to minḥa. Why discuss this halakha particularly with regard to the eves of Passover? Even on the eves of Shabbat and other Festivals it is also prohibited to eat in the late afternoon, as it was taught in a baraita: A person should not eat on the eves of Shabbat and Festivals from minḥa time onward, so that he will enter Shabbat when he has a desire to eat and he will enjoy the Shabbat meal; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: One may continue eating until dark.
אָמַר רַב הוּנָא: לָא צְרִיכָא אֶלָּא לְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי, דְּאָמַר: אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ — הָנֵי מִילֵּי בְּעַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים, אֲבָל בְּעֶרֶב הַפֶּסַח, מִשּׁוּם חִיּוּבָא דְמַצָּה מוֹדֶה.
Rav Huna said: The mishna was necessary only according to the opinion of Rabbi Yosei, who said that one may continue eating until dark. According to his opinion, the mishna is necessary to emphasize that this applies only on the eves of Shabbat and Festivals. But on the eve of Passover, due to the obligation to eat matza, Rabbi Yosei concedes that one must refrain from eating in the afternoon, so that he will eat matza with a good appetite.
רַב פָּפָּא אָמַר: אֲפִילּוּ תֵּימָא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, הָתָם בְּעַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה הוּא דַּאֲסִיר, סָמוּךְ לַמִּנְחָה שְׁרֵי. אֲבָל בְּעֶרֶב הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִילּוּ סָמוּךְ לַמִּנְחָה נָמֵי אָסוּר.
Rav Pappa said: Even if you say that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, there is still a difference between the eves of Shabbat and other Festivals, as compared with the eve of Passover. There, on the eves of Shabbat and other Festivals, it is only from minḥa time onward that it is prohibited to eat, but adjacent to minḥa time it is permitted. However, on the eve of Passover, even adjacent to minḥa time, it is also prohibited to eat. For this reason, the mishna is referring specifically to the eve of Passover.
וּבָעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לַמִּנְחָה שְׁרֵי? וְהָתַנְיָא: לֹא יֹאכַל אָדָם בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְיָמִים טוֹבִים מִתֵּשַׁע שָׁעוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לַשַּׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהוּא תַּאֲוָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר: אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ.
The Gemara asks: And on the eve of Shabbat adjacent to minḥa time, is it permitted to eat? But wasn’t the following taught in a baraita? A person may not eat on the eve of Shabbat and Festivals from nine hours onward, so that he will enter Shabbat when he is filled with the desire to eat; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: One may continue eating until dark. According to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, even on Shabbat eve one may not eat from before the time of the lesser minḥa, which is at nine and a half hours of the day.
אָמַר מָר זוּטְרָא: מַאן לֵימָא לַן דִּמְתָרַצְתָּא הִיא?
Mar Zutra said: Who will say to us that this version of the baraita is accurate?
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